ANAVEX®1-41 is a sigma-1 agonist. Pre-clinical tests revealed significant neuroprotective benefits through the modulation of endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial and oxidative stress, which damages and destroys cells and is believed by some scientists to be a primary cause of Alzheimer’s disease. In animal models, ANAVEX®1-41 prevented the expression of caspase-3, an enzyme that plays a key role in apoptosis and loss of cells in the hippocampus, the part of the brain that regulates learning, emotion and memory. These activities involve both muscarinic and sigma-1 receptor systems through a novel mechanism of action.